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Turkey - National Education Standards


World History

    Standard: 1

    Understands the biological and cultural processes that shaped the earliest human communities

    Level III: Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

    Understands early hominid development and scientific methods used to determine the dates and evolution of different human communities (e.g., methods employed by archaeologists, geologists, and anthropologists to study hominid evolution; the approximate chronology, sequence, and territorial range of early hominid evolution in Africa from the Australopithecines to Homo erectus)

    Understands the role of the environment in the development of different human communities (e.g., current and past theories regarding the emergence of Homo sapiens sapiens and the processes by which human groups populated the major world regions; how environmental conditions in the last Ice Age possibly affected changes in the economy, culture, and organization of human communities)

    Understands how different human communities expressed their beliefs (e.g., theories regarding the relationship between linguistic and cultural development; possible social, cultural, and/or religious meanings inferred from late paleolithic cave paintings found in Spain and France; theories about the ways in which hunter-gatherers may have communicated, maintained memory of past events, and expressed religious feelings)

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Understands methods by which early human communities are studied and what these studies reveal (e.g., the way in which newly discovered sites and investigative techniques used to examine them affect the study and understanding of human evolution, how common refuse can be studied to make inferences about earlier communities)

    Understands how different kinds of evidence are used to determine the cultural characteristics of early human communities (e.g., how archaeological evidence demonstrates the influences of climate, geographic location, and economic specialization on everyday life; how non-verbal evidence such as burials, carvings, and paintings can indicate the presence of religion)

    Understands physical, social, and cultural characteristics of different human communities (e.g., the possible types of early hominid communities; characteristics of skeletal remains of non-hominid, primate, hominid, and Homo sapiens and how to classify them chronologically; major features of flora, fauna, and climate associated with different hominid communities)


World History

    Standard: 8

    Understands how Aegean civilization emerged and how interrelations developed among peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia from 600 to 200 BCE

    Level II: Elementary (Grades 5-6)

    Understands Alexander's achievements as a military and political leader (e.g., reasons for the disintegration of the empire into smaller areas after his rule; the campaigns, battles, and cities founded in Alexander's imperial conquests)

World History
    Standard: 9

    Understands how major religious and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean Basin, China, and India from 500 BCE to 300 CE

    Level II: Elementary (Grades 5-6)

    Understands events in the rise of Christianity (e.g., the life of Paul the Apostle and his contribution to the spread of Christian beliefs, how Christianity spread widely in the Roman Empire, how the New Testament illustrates early Christian beliefs)

    Level III: Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

    Understands influences on the economic and political framework of Roman society (e.g., how Roman unity contributed to the growth of trade among lands of the Mediterranean basin; the importance of Roman commercial connections with Sub-Saharan Africa, India, and East Asia; the history of the Punic Wars and the consequences of the wars for Rome; the major phases of Roman expansion, including the Roman occupation of Britain)

    Understands the influence of Christian beliefs on political, social, and cultural aspects of society (e.g., how Jesus' moral teachings utilized and expanded upon the prohibitions of the Ten Commandments in the Hebrew Torah, the locations of centers of the Christian church, the impact of Christianity upon the Roman Empire, the values and stories expressed in early Christian religious art)

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Understands shifts in the political framework of Roman society (e.g., major phases in the empire's expansion through the 1st century CE; how imperial rule over a vast area transformed Roman society, economy, and culture; the causes and consequences of the transition from Republic to Empire under Augustus in Rome; how Rome governed its provinces from the late Republic to the Empire; how innovations in ancient military technology affected patterns of warfare and empire building)

    Understands the spread of Christianity and how it related to other belief systems (e.g., the extent and consequences of Christian expansion in Asia, Africa, and Europe to the 4th century; the events and circumstances, including the role of the martyr, that helped this expansion; comparisons between Jewish and Christian approaches to monotheism; the influence of other faiths upon the development of Christianity and those teachings that are distinctive to Christianity)


World History

    Standard: 19

    Understands the maturation of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange during a period of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion

    Understands the cultural characteristics of Islamic society (e.g., the importance of scientific, literary, and artistic contributions made by the Islamic civilization between the 11th and 13th centuries; how these contributions helped communication between different Islamic peoples; the diverse, multiethnic character of the Islamic state)

    Understands features of trade routes in Asia, Europe, and Africa (e.g., how goods traveled from East Asia to Europe and the importance of the Indian Ocean to the societies of Asia, East Africa, and Europe; the usefulness of the camel in desert transportation and trade)

    Level III: Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

    Understands the expansion of Islam and daily life in Islamic regions (e.g., how Turkic migration from Turkestan into Southwest Asia and India helped Islam expand and forced the retreat of Byzantium and Greek Christian civilization, what life in Egypt was like for Jewish and Christian communities, what student life was like in Islamic regions) Understands elements of trade in different regions (e.g., the importance of Cairo and other major cities as centers of international trade and culture; how the spread of Islam was connected to trade in Central Asia, East Africa, West Africa, the coasts of India, and Southeast Asia; the importance to individual societies of goods traded between Asia, Africa, and Europe; the consequences placed on maritime trade by the seasonal monsoon winds in the Indian Ocean; features and functions of caravansaries and khans in Central Asian and Middle Eastern cities; which ships were most successfully used for trade in the Indian Ocean and why)

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Understands how different religious movements influenced various cultures between the 11th and 13th centuries (e.g., the origins and growth of the North African Islamic reform movements; the impact of Christian campaigns of the Crusades on the societies and Muslim populations of Cairo, Damascus, and Sicily)

    Understands the significance of Sufism (e.g., the basic beliefs of Sufism and Sufism's role in the spread of Islam, how society and Sufi ideas are described and exemplified in Islamic literature, the roles and social position of Sufi orders in rural and urban areas)

    Understands cultural and political aspects of the Turkic Empires (e.g., the way of life of Turkic peoples such as the Seljuks, the origins and growth of the militaristic Seljuk and Ghazanavid Empires)

World History

    Standard: 23

    Understands patterns of crisis and recovery in Afro-Eurasia between 1300 and 1450

    Level II: Elementary (Grades 5-6)

    Understands the origins and early expansion of the Ottoman Empire up to the capture of Constantinople in 1453

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Understands what accounts for the success of the Ottoman empire

World History
    Standard: 26

    Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformations

    Level III: Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

    Understands how the Ottoman, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Siamese powers restricted European commercial, military, and political penetration in the 16th century

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Understands the consequences of Portuguese military conflicts and interaction with other cultures (e.g., the origins and consequences of Ottoman-Portuguese military conflicts in the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and Ethiopia in the early 16th century; the political and economic impact of Portuguese presence on the peoples of West and East Africa in the late 15th and 16th centuries)

World History
    Standard: 28

    Understands how large territorial empires dominated much of Eurasia between the 16th and 18th centuries

    Level II: Elementary (Grades 5-6)

    Understands political and cultural achievements of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., the significance of the capture of Constantinople for Christians and Ottomans; how the Ottoman military succeeded against various enemies; artistic, architectural, and literary achievements of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries; achievements of Sulieman the Magnificent; the extent of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires in the 14th and 15th centuries)

    Understands political achievements of the Safavid and Mughal Empires (e.g., how Persia was unified by the Turkic Safavids, the political and cultural achievements of the Safavid Golden Age under Shah Abbas I, the Mughal conquest of India and how the Turkic warrior class united diverse peoples of the Indian continent)

    Level III: Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

    Understands cultural, political, and economic factors that influenced the development of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., the development of the Ottoman Empire among diverse religious and ethnic groups, the Christian European view of the Ottoman seizure of Constantinople in 1453, trade routes within the Ottoman Empire and how trade was affected by the development of a sea route around Africa)

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Understands the social, economic, and cultural features of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., how Muslim, Orthodox, Catholic, and Jewish peoples interacted in southeastern Europe under Ottoman rule, the role and legal status of women within the Ottoman Empire, sources of revenue and patterns in state spending in the Ottoman Empire)

    Understands major political events in the rise and decline of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., the emergence of the Ottomans as a regional and world power between 1450 and 1650, the Ottoman Empire in the context of the Byzantine and Roman Empires, Austrian and Russian responses to Ottoman aggression, significant events in the expansion and recession of the Ottoman Empire from the 15th to the 17th centuries)

World History
    Standard: 34

    Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870

    Level II: Elementary (Grades 5-6)

    Understands changes in social and political elements of the Ottoman Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., reasons for the empire's retreat from the Balkans and Black Sea region; the lives of different members of Ottoman society such as the janissary, attendees of the Palace School, the role of women)

    Level III: Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

    Understands the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century (e.g., the defensive reform programs of Selim III and Mahmud II, and the challenges they faced in resolving the empire's political and economic crisis; sources of weakness of the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th century; the military training and equipment of the Janissary Corps; how and when territory of the Ottoman Empire changed during the first half of the 19th century; causes of the Crimean War, the main events, nations involved, and forms of warfare employed)

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Understands the social structure of the Ottoman Empire in the early and middle 19th century (e.g., the effects of population growth and European commercial penetration on Ottoman society and government; the roles of janissaries and Jewish and Christian merchants and landowners changed by the middle of the 19th century; the relative presence and the location of diverse religious and ethnic groups within the Ottoman Empire in 1800, and the prevailing Ottoman policy toward religion; the success and reception of the reforms of 1856 in the Hatt-I-Humayun issued by Abdul-Mejid)

    Knows the individual motivations and relative military strength of the English, French, and Ottomans in the Crimean War, as well as the significance of the outcome of the war for each of these participants

    Understands events that shaped the expansion and development of Russia in the 19th century and early 20th century (e.g., the causes of the Crimean War and its consequences for Russia, the Ottoman Empire, Britain, and France; the limits of Russian expansion eastward across Siberia and southward beyond the Caspian Sea; why Russia invaded the Ottoman territory in the early 1850s; how the Crimean War led to political and social reform for Russia; how Pan-Slavism affected Russian foreign policy in the late 19th century; what the Trans-Siberian and other railroad routes tell about Russian development and expansion from 1801 to 1914)

IV. The Turkish State

World History

    Standard: 35

    Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Understands the role of nationalism in conflicts within different nations (e.g., how nationalism fostered tension and conflict in the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires, the importance of Greek nationalists' and Europeans' roles in the struggle for Greek independence from the Ottomans)

World History
    Standard: 37

    Understands major global trends from 1750 to 1914

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Understands the importance of ideas associated with republicanism, liberalism, socialism, and constitutionalism on 19th-century political life in such states as Great Britain, France, the United States, Germany, Russia, Mexico, Argentina, the Ottoman Empire, China, or Japan (e.g., how these movements were tied to new or old-class interests)

    Understands the process of educational reform in various Muslim regions during the 19th century (e.g., the new institutions that were established, the effect of this reform on women, those areas that wholly embraced Western values, and those that rejected them)

World History
    Standard: 38

    Understands reform, revolution, and social change in the world economy of the early 20th century

    Level II: Elementary (Grades 5-6)

    Understands factors that transformed American and European society in the early 20th century (e.g., how industrial development affected the culture and working lives of middle and working class people in the United States, Japan, and Europe; major scientific, medical, and technological advances in Europe and the United States at the turn of the century; popular attitudes regarding material progress and the West's global leadership)

    Level III: Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

    Understands the industrial power of Great Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States in the early 20th century (e.g., how the nations compare statistically, the importance and potential of industrialization)

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Understands the reforms of Ottoman government and society advocated by the Young Turk movement, its origins, and possible reasons for its success

World History

    Standard: 40

    Understands the search for peace and stability throughout the world in the 1920s and 1930s

    Level II: Elementary (Grades 5-6)

    Understands treaties and other efforts to achieve peace and recovery from World War I (e.g., the conflicting aims and aspirations of the conferees at Versailles, and how the major powers responded to the terms of the settlement; why and how the League of Nations was founded, and its initial goals and limitations; the nations that were and were not invited to participate in the League of Nations; changes made to political boundaries after the peace treaties ending World War I, and which countries were winners or losers)

    Understands how the settlements of World War I influenced the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Latin America (e.g., the mandate system created by the League of Nations and how it changed European rule in the Middle East and Africa, how World War I settlements contributed to the rise of both Pan-Arabism and nationalist struggles for the independence in the Middle East, how the readjustment of national borders in Africa after World War I affected people in East and West Africa)

    Level III: Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

    Understands the immediate and long-term political and social effects of World War I (e.g., the objectives and achievements of the women's movements in the context of World War I and its aftermath, the causes and effects of the U.S. isolationist policies on world politics and international relations in the 1920s, the agreements on reparation payments made at the Conference of Versailles and how these agreements corresponded to Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points)

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Understands how the collapse of the German, Hapsburg, and Ottoman Empires and the creation of new states affected international relations in Europe and the Middle East

    Understands how World War I influenced demographics and the international economy (e.g., the impact of the war on the international economy and the effects of industrial conversion from war to peace in Britain, France, Italy, and Germany; significant refugee populations created as a result of World War I, and their movements and dispersion)

    Understands reasons for the shifts in the political conditions in nations around the world after World War I (e.g., how social and economic conditions of colonial rule, and ideals of liberal democracy and national autonomy contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in India, Africa, and Southeast Asia; the successes and failures of democratic government in Latin America in the context of class divisions, economic dependency, and U.S. intervention; how Japan's domestic democracy may have fallen victim to its imperialist foreign policy)

    Understands post-World War I shifts in geographic and political borders in Europe and the Middle East (e.g., how the postwar borders in Southern Europe and the Middle East were created, including influence of local opinion, prewar "spheres of influence," long-and short-term interests; how Ataturk worked to modernize Turkey, how Turkish society and international society responded)


World History

    Standard: 44

    Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world

    Level II: Elementary (Grades 5-6)

    Understands global influences on the environment (e.g., how population growth, urbanization, industrialization, warfare, and the global market economy have contributed to environmental alterations; how effective governments and citizens' groups have been at protecting the global natural environment)

    Understands efforts to improve political and social conditions around the world (e.g., the progress of human and civil rights around the globe since the 1948 U.N. Declaration of Human Rights; how the apartheid system was dismantled in South Africa and the black majority won voting rights; the progress made since the 1970s in resolving conflict between Israel and neighboring states)

    Understands cultural trends of the second half of the 20th century (e.g., the influence of television, the Internet, and other forms of electronic communication on the creation and diffusion of cultural and political information worldwide; how the world's religions have responded to challenges and uncertainties in society and the world)

    Level III: Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

    Understands the causes and effects of population growth and urbanization (e.g., why population growth rate is accelerating around the world, and connections between population growth and economic and social development in many countries; the global proliferation of cities and the rise of the megalopolis, as well as the impact of urbanization on family life, standards of living, class relations, and ethnic identity; why scientific, technological, and medical advances have improved living standards but have failed to eradicate hunger, poverty, and epidemic disease)

    Understands influences on economic development around the world (e.g., why economic disparities between industrialized and developing nations have persisted or increased, how neo-colonialism and authoritarian political leadership have affected development in African and Asian countries, the continuing growth of mass consumption of commodities and resources since World War II)

    Understands instances of political conflict and terrorism in modern society (e.g., the changes continuing urban protest and reformist economic policies have caused in post-Mao China under authoritarian rule; the causes, consequences, and moral implications of mass killings or famine in different parts of the world; possible factors in modern society that facilitate politically motivated terrorism and random forms of violence; world events that gave rise to the 1989 movement in China and led to the Tiannamen Square protest, the government response to this movement, and the international reaction)

    Understands the definition of "fundamentalism," and the political objectives of militant religious movements in various countries of the world, as well as the social and economic factors that contribute to the growth of these movements

    Understands the importance or meaning of the natural environment for societies around the world

    Understands the motivations, moral imperatives, and goals of specific separatist movements around the globe and the potential impact on the affected populations

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Understands major reasons for the great disparities between industrialized and developing nations (e.g., disparities in resources, production, capital investment, labor, or trade; possible programs and measures to help equalize these disparities)

    Understands the role of political ideology, religion, and ethnicity in shaping modern governments (e.g., the strengths of democratic institutions and civic culture in different countries and challenges to civil society in democratic states; how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America; the implications of ethnic, religious, and border conflicts on state-building in the newly independent republics of Africa; significant differences among nationalist movements in Eastern Europe that have developed in the 20th century, how resulting conflicts have been resolved, and the outcomes of these conflicts)

    Understands the role of ethnicity, cultural identity, and religious beliefs in shaping economic and political conflicts across the globe (e.g., why terrorist movements have proliferated and the extent of their impact on politics and society in various countries; the tensions and contradictions between globalizing trends of the world economy and assertions of traditional cultural identity and distinctiveness, including the challenges to the role of religion in contemporary society; the meaning of jihad and other Islamic beliefs that are relevant to military activity, how these compare to the Geneva Accords, and how such laws and principles apply to terrorist acts)

    Understands influences on population growth, and efforts to control such growth in modern society (e.g., how statistics from specific, diverse nations illustrate the relationship between scientific, medical, and technological advancements and population growth; China's population growth from the 1700s to 1990, why the population growth increased dramatically, and the effects of the "one-child" policy of the 1990s; issues and objections raised at the 1994 Cairo Conference on World Population and the difficulty of arriving at a consensus document on population growth)

    Understands the effectiveness of United Nations programs (e.g., improvements in health and welfare, whether UN programs have been cost-effective, whether programs fulfilled the purpose for which they were created, reasons for economic and arms embargoes sponsored by U.N. resolutions and the political and economic consequences for the sanctioned countries)

    Understands common arguments of opposition groups in various countries around the world, common solutions they offer, and the position of these ideas with regard to Western economic and strategic interests

    Understands gender roles across the globe (e.g., conflicts in the perception of gender roles in various religions, especially the role of women; how the legal status of women varies around the world in Muslim societies, and how the status of women from different classes has changed in the past century)

    Understands how global political change has altered the world economy (e.g., what participation in the world economy can mean for different countries; the relationship between demands for democratic reform and the trend toward privatization and economic liberalization in developing economies and former communist states, and how multilateral aid organizations and multinational corporations have supported or challenged these trends)

    Understands how specific countries have implemented social and cultural changes (e.g., the different manifestations of China's contingency quest for a "new culture" throughout the 20th century, and what the Cultural Revolution meant for Chinese people in the late 1960s; models for family life, the economy, and social and political institutions suggested by modern Muslim intellectuals)

World History
    Standard: 45

    Understands major global trends since World War II

    Level II: Elementary (Grades 5-6)

    Understands the advancement of human rights and democratic ideals and practices in the world during the 20th century

    Level III: Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

    Understands the changing configuration of political boundaries in the world since 1900 and connections between nationalist ideology and the proliferation of sovereign states

    Understands the causes and consequences of the world's shift from bipolar to multipolar centers of economic, political, and military power

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Understands causes of economic imbalances and social inequalities among the world's peoples and efforts made to close these gaps

    Understands connections between globalizing trends in economy, technology, and culture and dynamic assertions of traditional cultural identity and distinctiveness

    Standard: 7

    Knows the physical processes that shape patterns on Earth's surface

    Level III: Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 6-8)

    Knows the major processes that shape patterns in the physical environment (e.g., the erosional agents such as water and ice, earthquake zones and volcanic activity, the ocean circulation system)

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Understands how physical processes affect different regions of the United States and the world (e.g., effects of hurricanes in the Caribbean Basin and the eastern United States or of earthquakes in Turkey, Japan, and Nicaragua; effects of desertification and soil degradation, flash floods, dust storms, sand movement, soil erosion and salt accumulation in dry environments)

    Standard: 10

    Understands the nature and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Knows the role culture plays in incidents of cooperation and conflict in the present-day world (e.g., ethnic ties among the Kurds living in Iran, Iraq, and Turkey)


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