"All Must Die"

By Jose Antonio de Areche

Spanish magistrate Jose' Antonio de Areche supervised the gruesome execution of Ttipac Amaru II, his wife Micaela Bastidas, and seven other coconspirators in Cuzco's main square in 1781. Interestingly, however, Areche's language betrays a degree of fascination wib the traditions of the Indian elite even as he advocates the destruction of the symbols of Inca rule, in what anthropologist Renato Rosalde calls the "imperialist nostalgia" of European colonizers for the cultures they sought to destroy. Despite Spanish attempts to erase memory, Tie In-karri myth, with its promise of the recomposition of the Incas body and the restoration of Indian rule, circulated in the southern high-lands for decades, even centuries, to come.

- Introduction from Starn, Orin, et.al., "The Peru Reader"

I must and do condemn Jose' G. Tupac Amaru to be taken out to the main public square of this city, dragged out to the place of execution, where he shall witness the execution of the sentences imposed on his wife, Micaela Bastidas; his two sons, Hipolito and Fernando Tupac Amaru; his uncle, Francisco Tupac Amaru; and his brother-in-law, Antonio Bastidas, as well as some of the principal captains an4 aides in his iniquitous and perverse intent or project, all of whom must die the same day.

And once these sentences have been carried out, the execunoner will cut out his tongue, and he will then be tied or bound by strong cords on each one of his arms and feet in such a way that each rope can be easily tied or fastened to others hanging from the saddle straps of four horses so that, in this position, each one of these horses, facing opposite corners of the square, will pull toward his own direction; and let the horses be urged or jolted into motion at the same time so that his body be divided into as many parts and then, once it is done, the parts should be carried to the hill or high ground known as "Picchu," which is where he came to intimidate, lay siege to, and demand the surrender of this city; and let there be lit a fire which shall be pre-pared in advance and then let ashes be thrown into the air and a stone tablet placed there detailing his main crimes and the manner of his death as the only record and statement of his loathesome action.

His head will be sent to the town of Tinta where, after having been three days on the gallows, it shall be placed on a stake at the most public entrance to the town; one of his arms will go to the town of Tungasuca, where he was chief, where it will be treated in like manner, and the other in the capital of the province of Carabaya; one of the legs shall likewise be sent for the same kind of demonstration to the town of Libitaca in the province of Chumbivilcas, while the remaining one shall go to Santa Rosa in the province of Lampa along with an affida-vit and order to the respective chief magistrates, or territorial judges, that this sentence be proclaimed publicly with the greatest solemnity as soon as it arrives in their hands, and on the same day every year thereafter; and they will give notice in writing of this to their superiors in government who are familiar with the said territories.

Since this traitor managed to arm himself and form an army and forces against the royal arms by making use of or seducing and lead-ing with his falsehoods the chiefs who are the second in command in the villages, since these villages, being of Indians, are not governed by such chiefs but rather by mayors who are elected annually by the vote or nomination of the chiefs: let these same electoral communities and the chief magistrates take care to give preference to candidates who know Spanish, and who are of the best behavior, reputation, and customs so that they will treat their subjects well and lovingly, honor-ing only those who have demonstrated honestly their inclination and faithfulness, eagerness, respect, obedience, submission, and gratitude to the greater glory of our great Monarch through the sacrifice of their lives, properties, or ranches in defense of their country or religion, receiving with brave disdain the threats and offers of the aforesaid rebel leader and his military chiefs, yet taking care that these elected leaders are the only ones with the right to the title of chief or governor of their ayllus (communities) or towns, and that they cannot transmit their position to their children or other family members.

To this same end, it is prohibited that the Indians wear heathen clothes, especially those who belong to the nobility, since it only serves to symbolize those worn by their Inca ancestors, reminding them of memories which serve no other end than to increase their hatred toward the dominant nation; not to mention that their appearance is ridiculous and very little in accordance with the purity of our relics, since they place in different parts images of the sun, which was their primary deity; and this prohibition is to be extended to all the prov-inces of this southern America, in order to completely eliminate such clothing, especially those items which represent the bestialities of their heathen kings through emblems such as the unco, which is a kind of vest; yacollas, which are very rich blankets or shawls of black velvet or taffeta; the mascapaycha, which is a circle in the shape of a crown from which they hang a certain emblem of ancient nobility signified by a tuft or tassel of red-colored alpaca wool, as well as many other things of this kind and symbolism. All of this shall be proclaimed in writing in each province, that they dispose of or surrender to the magistrates whatever clothing of this kind exists in the province, as well as all the paintings or likenesses of their Incas which are extremely abundant in the houses of the Indians who consider themselves to be nobles and who use them to prove their claim or boast of their lineage.

These latter shall be erased without fail since they do not merit the dignity of being painted in such places, and with the same end in mind there shall also be erased, so that no sign remains, any portraits that might be found on walls or other solid objects; in churches, monas-teries, hospitals, holy places or private homes, such duties fall under the jurisdiction of the reverend archbishops or bishops of both vice-royalties in those areas pertaining to the churches; and in their place it would be best to replace such adornments with images of the king and our other Catholic sovereigns should that be necessary. Also, the ministers and chief magistrates should ensure that in no town of their respective provinces be performed plays or other public functions of the kind that the Indians are accustomed to put on to com-memorate their former Incas; and having carried out the order, these ministers shall give a certified account to the secretaries of the respec-tive governments. In like manner shall be prohibited and confiscated the trumpets or bugles that the Indians use for their ceremonies and which they call pututos, being seashells with a strange and mournful sound that celebrate the mourning and pitiful memorial they make for their antiquity; and there shall also be prohibited the custom of using or wearing black clothing as a sign of mourning, a custom that drags on in some provinces in memory of their deceased monarchs and also of the day or time of the conquest which they consider disastrous and we consider fortunate since it brought them into the company of the Catholic Church and the very loving and gentle domination of our kings.

With the same goal it is absolutely forbidden that the Indians sign themselves as "Incas," since it is a title that anyone can assume but which makes a lasting impression on those of their class; and it is ordered, as is required of all those who have genealogical trees or documents that prove in some way their descent, that they produce them or send them certified and without cost by mail to the respective secretaries of both viceroyalties so that the formalities may be ob-served by those persons responsible to their excellencies the viceroys, consulting His Majesty where necessary according to each case; and the chief magistrates are charged to oversee the fulfillment of such requirements, to seek out and discover anyone who does not observe them correctly, in order to have it done or to collect the documents with the aim of sending them to the proper authorities after giving their owners a receipt.

And so that these Indians renounce the hatred that they have con-ceived against the Spaniards, and that they adhere to the dress which the laws indicate, adopting our Spanish customs and speaking Cas-tilian, we shall introduce more vigorously than we have done up to now the use of schools, imposing the most rigorous and fair penalties on those who do not attend once enough time has passed for them to have learned the language; the duties and responsibilities involved in this plan going to the very reverend ecclesiastical prelates so that, in the opposition between parishes and doctrines, they take care that those candidates bring affidavits from the provincial judges as to the numbers of people who speak the said Castilian in those provinces, noting in the tribunal that they send to the vice-protectors the particu-lars with relation to each position; and there will be established a term of four years for the people to speak fluently or at least be able to ex-plain themselves in Castilian, the bishops and chief magistrates being required to report on all this to their respective superior governing body, and it being left up to the sovereign discretion of His Majesty to reward and honor those towns whose inhabitants have rendered, under the present circumstances, their due loyalty and faithfulness.

Finally, the manufacture of cannons of all kinds shall be prohibited under the penalty that any noble found manufacturing such items will be sentenced to ten years of prison in one of the presidios in Africa and any commoner will receive two hundred lashes as well as the same penalty for the same time period; reserving for a future time a simi-lar resolution with regards to the manufacture of powder. And since there are in many ore-crushing mills and timberyards in these prov-inces cannons of almost every caliber, they will be gathered up by the magistrates once the pacification of this uprising has been completely terminated, in order to give account of them to the respective cap-taincy general so that he may determine whatever use he deem proper for them. Thus have I visualized, ordered, and signed: this is my final judgment. Jose' Antonio de Areche.

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