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Israel - National Education Standards


I. THE ROOTS AND BELIEFS OF JUDAISM


World History

Understands technological and cultural innovation and change from 1000 to 600 BCE

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

Understands elements of Judaism and how it compares to other religions (e.g., the differences between Jewish monotheism and the polytheism of Southwest Asia, the ethical teachings of Judaism illustrated in stories from the Hebrew Scriptures, the major events in the early history of Judaism through the Babylonian Captivity)

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands characteristics of the Assyrian and Babylonian Empires (e.g., the geographic extent of the Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and sources of their power and wealth, the significance of geographic features to the success of these empires, what Assyrian art indicates about Assyrian culture and society)

Understands social development and religious beliefs of Jewish civilization (e.g., the course of development of the Jewish kingdoms and the Jews' maintenance of religious and cultural traditions despite destruction of these kingdoms, the significance of the Torah in Judaism)

- High School (Grades 9-12)

Understands events that led to the spread of Judaism (e.g., the significance of the Babylonian captivity for the subsequent history and survival of Judaism, the significance of the Jewish diaspora for the transmission of Judaism in the Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia)

II. THE ROOTS AND BELIEFS OF CHRISTIANITY

Understands how major religious and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean Basin, China, and India from 500 BCE to 300 CE

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

Understands the significance of Jesus of Nazareth (e.g., the story of the life of Jesus, the messages of Jesus' prominent parables)

Understands events in the rise of Christianity (e.g., the life of Paul the Apostle and his contribution to the spread of Christian beliefs, how Christianity spread widely in the Roman Empire, how the New Testament illustrates early Christian beliefs)

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands the influence of Christian beliefs on political, social, and cultural aspects of society(e.g., how Jesus' moral teachings utilized and expanded upon the prohibitions of the Ten Commandments in the Hebrew Torah, the locations of centers of the Christian church, the impact of Christianity upon the Roman Empire, the values and stories expressed in early Christian religious art)

- High School (Grades 9-12)

Understands the spread of Christianity and how it related to other belief systems (e.g., the extent and consequences of Christian expansion in Asia, Africa, and Europe to the 4th century; the events and circumstances, including the role of the martyr, that helped this expansion; comparisons between Jewish and Christian approaches to monotheism; the influence of other faiths upon the development of Christianity and those teachings that are distinctive to Christianity)

Understands the Imperial crises and their aftermath in various regions from 300 to 700 CE

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

Understands various characteristics of Christianity and Buddhism (e.g., methods used to spread the two religions to new areas and people; possible aspects of Christianity and Buddhism that appealed to people living between the 3rd and 5th centuries CE; the approximate geographical realms of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, and Confucianism until the 5th century CE)

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands how the spread of Buddhism and Christianity influenced different regions (e.g., the spread of the two religions in the context of change and crisis in the Roman and Han empires; the importance of monasticism in the growth of Christianity and Buddhism and the participation of men and women in monastic life and missionary activity; the importance of universal salvation to the early history of these two religions; the locations of new centers of Buddhism and Christianity and the major routes used to spread the faith beyond these centers; the efforts and successes of Ashoka and Constantine to legitimize Buddhism and Christianity and spread them throughout India and Europe respectively)

Understands the changing status of women in early Christian and Buddhist societies

- High School (Grades 9-12)

Understands how the spread of different religions influenced political and social conditions in various regions (e.g., the spread of religious Daoism and Buddhism in China; possible causal relationships between the spread of Christianity and Buddhism, and the expansion of international trade; royal patronage of religion and the desires of a growing middle class for "peace" to enable commercial expansion)

Understands shifts in the status of women from pagan Roman society to Christian society (e.g., the shifting importance of social class, marital status)

III. THE ROOTS AND BELIEFS OF ISLAM

Understands the causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

Understands the spread of Islam in Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean region (e.g., the life of Muhammad, his devotion to God, and the basic beliefs and values he preached; how Islam spread in Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean and evidence for its influence; the importance to Islam of the Hegira [Hirjah], the Ka'abah, the Qur'an, the Sunnah, the Hajj, the daily prayer [Salat], the poor due [Zakat] and Ramadan)

Understands the influence of Islamic ideas and practices on other cultures and social behavior (e.g., the origin and development of Islamic law; the influence of Islamic law and Muslim practice on family life, morals, marriage, inheritance, and slavery; the possible appeal of Islam to culturally diverse non-Muslims across Afro-Eurasia in the Abbasid era)

Understands how the Byzantine state withstood attacks between the 8th and 10th centuries (e.g., military technology and the successful defense of Byzantium against Arab Muslim attacks)

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands how the Muslims spread Islamic beliefs and established their empire (e.g., how Muslim forces overthrew the Byzantines in Syria and Egypt and the Sassanids in Persia and Iraq; Arab Muslim success in founding an empire stretching from Western Europe to India and China; the diverse religious, cultural, and geographic factors that influenced the ability of the Muslim government to rule; how Islam attracted new converts)

Understands significant aspects of Islamic civilization (e.g., the emergence of Islamic civilization in Iberia and its economic and cultural achievements, how family life and gender relations were prescribed in Islamic society)

Understands how the Byzantine Empire defended itself against various invaders (e.g., variations in maritime technology and ship design in the 9th century and the role of the navy in Byzantine defense against Arab Muslim attacks; weapons, fortification, and military preparedness of the Byzantine Empire and explanations for its successful defense against Bulgar and Arab invaders)

- High School (Grades 9-12)

Understands challenges to Muslim civilization (e.g., the transformation of the Arab Caliphate into a Southwest Asian and Mediterranean Empire under the Umyyad Dynasty, and why the Muslim community divided into Sunni and Shi'ite factions

Understands significant social and cultural changes in Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries (e.g., the changing position of women in the new Islam, how Muslim mosque architecture physically reflects the relationship between people, spiritual leaders, and God in Islam; the process through which Arabic became a common language in the early Islamic centuries; what branches of. scholarship developed out of the efforts of Muslim leaders and scholars to record the Qur'an and Hadith)

Understands major global trends from 300 to 1000 CE

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

Understands major changes in the religious map of Eurasia and Africa between 300 and 1000 CE (e.g., the success of Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam in making converts among peoples of differing ethnic and cultural traditions)

Understands major global trends from 1000 to 1500 CE

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands the impact of interaction between Christians and Muslims in the Mediterranean region (e.g., how their encounters, both hostile and peaceful, affected political, economic and cultural life in Europe, North Africa, and Southwest Asia)

IV. ZIONISM AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN ISRAEL

Understands the search for peace and stability throughout the world in the 1920s and 1930s

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

Understands how the settlements of World War I influenced the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Latin America (e.g., the mandate system created by the League of Nations and how it changed European rule in the Middle East and Africa, how World War I settlements contributed to the rise of both Pan-Arabism and nationalist struggles for the independence in the Middle East

Understands how post-World War II reconstruction occurred, new international power relations took shape, and colonial empires broke up

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

Understands political and social change in the developing countries of the Middle East, Africa, and Asia after World War II (e.g., how Israel was created, and why persistent conflict developed between Israel and both Arab Palestinians and neighboring states...)

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands important events in the struggle between Israelis and Palestinians since 1948 and the argument on each side for rights to the disputed land

- High School (Grades 9-12)

Understands how the Balfour Declaration affected British policy toward Palestine and the political goals of the Arab League and the Zionist Movement, and how the White Paper Reports affected Jewish and Arab inhabitants of Palestine

Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

Understands efforts to improve political and social conditions around the world (e.g., the progress of human and civil rights around the globe since the 1948 U.N. Declaration of Human Rights; how the apartheid system was dismantled in South Africa and the black majority won voting rights; the progress made since the 1970s in resolving conflict between Israel and neighboring states)

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands the definition of "fundamentalism," and the political objectives of militant religious movements in various countries of the world, as well as the social and economic factors that contribute to the growth of these movements. (World History, Era 9, Standard 44)

- High School (Grades 9-12)

Understands the role of ethnicity, cultural identity, and religious beliefs in shaping economic and political conflicts across the globe (e.g., why terrorist movements have proliferated and the extent of their impact on politics and society in various countries; the tensions and contradictions between globalizing trends of the world economy and assertions of traditional cultural identity and distinctiveness, including the challenges to the role of religion in contemporary society; the meaning of jihad and other Islamic beliefs that are relevant to military activity. (World History, Era 9, Standard 44)

V. MODERN CHALLENGES IN ISRAEL

Geography

Understands the patterns and processes of migration and diffusion (spread of language, religion, and customs from one culture to another; spread of a contagious disease through a population; global migration patterns of plants and animals) (Geography Standard 3)

Knows the ways in which human movement and migration influence the character of a place (e.g., New Delhi before and after the partition of the Indian subcontinent in the 1940s and the massive realignment of the Hindu and Muslim populations; Boston before and after the large-scale influx of Irish immigrants in the mid-nineteenth century; the impact of Indians settling in South Africa, Algerians settling in France, Vietnamese settling in the United States) (Geography Standard 9)

Understands how different people living in the same region maintain different ways of life (e.g., the cultural differences between Native Americans and Europeans living along the eastern seaboard in the 17th century; differences among Sikhs, Hindus, and Muslims living in India today) (Geography Standard 10)

Knows the geographic factors that have influenced people and events in the past (e.g., the effects of the site of a Civil War battle on the course of the conflict, how trade routes followed by early European colonists were linked to the trade winds, how Muslim trading vessels used monsoon winds to cross the Indian Ocean in the 8th century) (Geography Standard 17)

Civics

Understands how politics enables people with differing ideas to reach binding agreements (e.g., presenting information and evidence, stating arguments, negotiating, compromising, voting) (Civics Standard 1)

Understands competing ideas about the purposes government should serve (e.g., whether government should protect individual rights, promote the common good, provide economic security, mold the character of citizens, promote a particular religion) (Civics Standard 1)

Understands how the world is organized politically into nation-states, how nation-states interact with one another, and issues surrounding U.S. foreign policy (Civics Standard 22)

Knows that the world is divided into many different nations with each one having its own government, and knows that a nation consists of its territory, people, laws, and government. (Civics Standard 22)

Knows the major ways nations interact with each other such as trade, diplomacy, cultural contacts, treaties or agreements, and use of military force. (Civics Standard 22)

Understands why it is important for nations to try to resolve problems peacefully (e.g., people's standard of living will improve due to increased trade, people's health will improve due to the exchange of medical and scientific knowledge). (Civics Standard 22)

Knows the most important means used by nation-states to interact with one another (e.g., trade diplomacy, treaties and agreements, humanitarian aid, economic incentives and sanctions, military force and the threat of force) (Civics Standard 22)

Knows reasons for the breakdown of order among nation-states (e.g., conflicts about national interests, ethnicity, and religion; competition for resources and territory; absence of effective means to enforce international law), and understands the consequences of the breakdown of order among nation-states. (Civics Standard 22)

Knows the purposes and functions of major governmental international organizations (e.g., UN, NATO, OAS, World Court) and nongovernmental international organizations (e.g., International Red Cross, World Council of Churches, Amnesty International). (Civics Standard 22)

Art

Visual Arts - Understands the visual arts in relation to history and cultures

Music - Understands the relationship between music and history and culture

Dance - Understands dance in various cultures and historical periods




 

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