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Iran - National Education Standards


I. ANCIENT PERSIA back to top

World History

    Standard: 8

    Understands how Aegean civilization emerged and how interrelations developed among peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia from 600 to 200 BCE

    Level II: Elementary (Grades 5-6)

    Understands Alexander's achievements as a military and political leader (e.g., reasons for the disintegration of the empire into smaller areas after his rule; the campaigns, battles, and cities founded in Alexander's imperial conquests

    Level III: Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

    Understands elements of Alexander of Macedon's legacy (e.g., the scope and success of his imperial conquests; his rise to power, methods used to unite the empirees)

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12

    Understands how conquest influenced cultural life during the Hellenistic era (e.g., the cultural diffusion of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian art and architecture through assimilation, conquest, migration, and trade; the benefits and costs of Alexander's conquests on numerous cultures, and the extent to which these conquests brought about cultural mixing and exchange) Understands Persian religious beliefs (e.g., the basic teachings of Zoroastrianism; the relationship between religion and politics in Persian society and the place of Zoroastrianism within the various levels of Persian society)

    Understands how different human communities expressed their beliefs (e.g., theories regarding the relationship between linguistic and cultural development; possible social, cultural, and/or religious meanings inferred from late paleolithic cave paintings found in Spain and France; theories about the ways in which hunter-gatherers may have communicated, maintained memory of past events, and expressed religious feelings)


World History

    Standard: 13

    Understands the causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries

    Level II: Elementary (Grades 5-6)

    Understands the spread of Islam in Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean region (e.g., the life of Muhammad, his devotion to God, and the basic beliefs and values he preached; how Islam spread in Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean and evidence for its influence; the importance to Islam of the Hegira [Hirjah], the Ka'abah, the Qur'an, the Sunnah, the Hajj, the daily prayer [Salat], the poor due [Zakat] and Ramadan)

    Understands the influence of Islamic ideas and practices on other cultures and social behavior (e.g., the origin and development of Islamic law; the influence of Islamic law and Muslim practice on family life, morals, marriage, inheritance, and slavery; the possible appeal of Islam to culturally diverse non-Muslims across Afro-Eurasia in the Abbasid era)

    Understands how the Byzantine state withstood attacks between the 8th and 10th centuries (e.g., military technology and the successful defense of Byzantium against Arab Muslim attacks)

    Understands the effect of geography on different groups and their trade practices (e.g., nomads, town-dwellers, trade practices on the Arabian peninsula; the goods traded and the origins of these goods)
    Understands the significance of Baghdad (e.g., the trade network and goods traded, its role as a center of commerce in the 8th to 10th centuries CE)

    Understands the impact of the invention of paper on various cultures (e.g., Chinese, Muslim, later European culture) and its route from its source through Muslim lands to Europe)

    Level III: Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

    Understands how the Muslims spread Islamic beliefs and established their empire (e.g., how Muslim forces overthrew the Byzantines in Syria and Egypt and the Sassanids in Persia and Iraq; Arab Muslim success in founding an empire stretching from Western Europe to India and China; the diverse religious, cultural, and geographic factors that influenced the ability of the Muslim government to rule; how Islam attracted new converts)

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Understands the political, social, and religious problems confronting the Byzantine and Sassanid Persian Empires in the 7th century and the commercial role of Arabia in the Southwest Asian economy

    Understands challenges to Muslim civilization (e.g., the transformation of the Arab Caliphate into a Southwest Asian and Mediterranean Empire under the Umyyad Dynasty, and why the Muslim community divided into Sunni and Shi'ite factions; the significance of the Battle of Tours of 733 as interpreted by Muslim and Christian sources and changing historiographical views of the event)

    Understands the strengths and weaknesses of the Abbasid, Byzantine, and Sassanid Persian governments and military institutions

    Understands significant social and cultural changes in Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries (e.g., the changing position of women in the new Islam, how Muslim mosque architecture physically reflects the relationship between people, spiritual leaders, and God in Islam; the process through which Arabic became a common language in the early Islamic centuries; what branches of. scholarship developed out of the efforts of Muslim leaders and scholars to record the Qur'an and Hadith)

World History
    Standard: 28

    Understands how large territorial empires dominated much of Eurasia between the 16th and 18th centuries

    Level II: Elementary (Grades 5-6)

    Understands political achievements of the Safavid and Mughal Empires (e.g., how Persia was unified by the Turkic Safavids, the political and cultural achievements of the Safavid Golden Age under Shah Abbas I, the Mughal conquest of India and how the Turkic warrior class united diverse peoples of the Indian continent)

    Level III: Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

    Understands cultural, political, and economic factors that influenced the development of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., the development of the Ottoman Empire among diverse religious and ethnic groups, the Christian European view of the Ottoman seizure of Constantinople in 1453, trade routes within the Ottoman Empire and how trade was affected by the development of a sea route around Africa)

    Understands factors that influenced the development and expansion of the Safavid Empire (e.g., key urban areas of the empire, and factors that contributed to the success of Safavid rule; how the city of Isfahan developed under the reign of Shah Abbas I)

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Understands major political events in the rise and decline of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., the emergence of the Ottomans as a regional and world power between 1450 and 1650, the Ottoman Empire in the context of the Byzantine and Roman Empires, Austrian and Russian responses to Ottoman aggression, significant events in the expansion and recession of the Ottoman Empire from the 15th to the 17th centuries)

    Understands the origins and development of the Safavid Empire (e.g., how Ismail created the Safavid Empire with the support of Qizilbash nomadic tribesmen; the evolution of Safavid social and political system from the nomadic-warrior years of Ismail to the golden age of Shah Abbas I)

    Knows similarities and differences between major empires and leaders (e.g., comparisons between the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires; differences and similarities in government, military, and religious patterns of the six major Mughal emperors)


World History

    Standard: 43

    Understands how post-World War II reconstruction occurred, new international power relations took shape, and colonial empires broke up

    Understands political and social change in the developing countries of the Middle East, Africa, and Asia after World War II (e.g., how Israel was created, and why persistent conflict developed between Israel and both Arab Palestinians and neighboring states; the African experience under European colonial rule; major social and economic forces that compelled many Vietnamese to seek refuge in foreign countries)

    Understands the position of women in developing countries (e.g., as compared to their position in industrialized countries, how change has occurred in different societies)

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Understands the impact of relations between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War (e.g., the effects of United States and Soviet competition for influence or dominance upon such countries as Egypt, Iran, the Congo, Vietnam, Chile, and Guatemala; the impact of the Cold War on art, literature, and popular culture around the world)

    Understands the strategic role of the Muslim countries during the Cold War (e.g., the importance of geography, economy, and population) and the change in the region's role since the breakup of the Soviet Union

United States History

    Standard: 30

    Understands developments in foreign policy and domestic politics between the Nixon and Clinton presidencies

    Level II: Elementary (Grades 5-6)

    Understands the events that influenced U.S. foreign policy from the Carter to the Bush administrations (e.g., Reagan's efforts to reassert American military power and rebuild American prestige; crisis areas around the world and some of the major peace initiatives made during the Carter administration; geographic changes after the fall of the U.S.S.R and communist states in eastern Europe; places in the Middle East, Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and Asia where U.S. advisers and military forces were involved during the Reagan and Bush years

    Level III: Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8))

    Understands major foreign policy events and how they influenced public opinion of the administrations from Nixon to Clinton (e.g., U.S. policies toward arms limitations; Nixon's policy of detente with the U.S.S.R. and the People's Republic of China; reasons for the collapse of communist governments in Eastern Europe and the U.S.S.R; President Carter's role in the Camp David Accords; the Iranian hostage crisis; the foreign policy of the Reagan administration and domestic and foreign reactions to it; foreign policy goals of the Bush and Clinton administrations and their effectiveness)

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Understands the impact of the Reagan presidency on relations with other countries (e.g., the issues raised in the Iran-Contra affair, Reagan's view of the Soviet Union as an "evil empire" and how that shaped defense policy, the Reagan administration's policy toward South Africa)

    Understands the influence of U.S. foreign policy on international events from Nixon to Clinton (e.g., the U.S.'s role in the evolving political struggles in the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Latin America; foreign policy in the post-Cold War era; U.S. goals and objectives in the Middle East; the pros and cons of U.S. intervention in the Persian Gulf under Reagan and Bush; how human rights has been used in American foreign policy)


World History

    Standard: 44

    Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world

    Level II: Elementary (Grades 5-6)

    Understands global influences on the environment (e.g., how population growth, urbanization, industrialization, warfare, and the global market economy have contributed to environmental alterations; how effective governments and citizens' groups have been at protecting the global natural environment)

    Understands the impact of increasing economic interdependence in different regions of the world (e.g., how global communications and changing international labor demands have shaped new patterns of world migration since World War II, the effects of the European Economic Community and its growth on economic productivity and political integration in Europe, the emergence of the Pacific Rim economy and economic growth in South Korea and Singapore in recent decades, the effects of new transport and communications technology on patterns of world trade and finance)

    Understands efforts to improve political and social conditions around the world (e.g., the progress of human and civil rights around the globe since the 1948 U.N. Declaration of Human Rights; how the apartheid system was dismantled in South Africa and the black majority won voting rights; the progress made since the 1970s in resolving conflict between Israel and neighboring states)

    Understands how feminist movements and social conditions have affected the lives of women around the world, and the extent of women's progress toward social equality, economic opportunity, and political rights in various countries

    Understands scientific and technological trends of the second half of the 20th century (e.g, worldwide implications of the revolution in nuclear, electronic, and computer technology; the social and cultural implications of medical successes such as the development of antibiotics and vaccines and the conquest of smallpox; the "consumer societies" of industrialized nations compared with those in predominantly agrarian nations)

    Understands cultural trends of the second half of the 20th century (e.g., the influence of television, the Internet, and other forms of electronic communication on the creation and diffusion of cultural and political information worldwide; how the world's religions have responded to challenges and uncertainties in society and the world)

    Level III: Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

    Understands the causes and effects of population growth and urbanization (e.g., why population growth rate is accelerating around the world, and connections between population growth and economic and social development in many countries; the global proliferation of cities and the rise of the megalopolis, as well as the impact of urbanization on family life, standards of living, class relations, and ethnic identity; why scientific, technological, and medical advances have improved living standards but have failed to eradicate hunger, poverty, and epidemic disease)

    Understands influences on economic development around the world (e.g., why economic disparities between industrialized and developing nations have persisted or increased, how neo-colonialism and authoritarian political leadership have affected development in African and Asian countries, the continuing growth of mass consumption of commodities and resources since World War II)

    Understands instances of political conflict and terrorism in modern society

    Understands the definition of "fundamentalism," and the political objectives of militant religious movements in various countries of the world, as well as the social and economic factors that contribute to the growth of these movements

    Understands the emergence of a global culture (e.g., connections between electronic communications, international marketing, and the rise of a popular "global culture" in the late 20th century; how modern arts have expressed and reflected social transformations, political changes, and how they have been internationalized)

    Understands the importance or meaning of the natural environment for societies around the world

    Understands the role and difficulties of the present day migrant worker (e.g., the Southeast Asian domestic in the Persian Gulf, the American oil executive in Saudi Arabia, the Moroccan factory worker in France)

    Understands the motivations, moral imperatives, and goals of specific separatist movements around the globe and the potential impact on the affected populations

    Understands the effects of modern communication on consumer tastes and demands in different parts of the world

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Understands rates of economic development and the emergence of different economic systems around the globe

    Understands major reasons for the great disparities between industrialized and developing nations (e.g., disparities in resources, production, capital investment, labor, or trade; possible programs and measures to help equalize these disparities)

    Understands the oil crisis and its aftermath in the 1970s (e.g., how the oil crisis revealed the extent and complexity of global economic interdependence; events that have affected world oil prices since 1950; relationships between U.S. domestic energy policy and foreign policy in oil producing regions since 1970)

    Understands the role of political ideology, religion, and ethnicity in shaping modern governments (e.g., the strengths of democratic institutions and civic culture in different countries and challenges to civil society in democratic states; how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America; the implications of ethnic, religious, and border conflicts on state-building in the newly independent republics of Africa; significant differences among nationalist movements in Eastern Europe that have developed in the 20th century, how resulting conflicts have been resolved, and the outcomes of these conflicts)

    Understands the role of ethnicity, cultural identity, and religious beliefs in shaping economic and political conflicts across the globe (e.g., why terrorist movements have proliferated and the extent of their impact on politics and society in various countries; the tensions and contradictions between globalizing trends of the world economy and assertions of traditional cultural identity and distinctiveness, including the challenges to the role of religion in contemporary society; the meaning of jihad and other Islamic beliefs that are relevant to military activity, how these compare to the Geneva Accords, and how such laws and principles apply to terrorist acts)

    Understands the impact of population pressure, poverty, and environmental degradation on the breakdown of state authority in various countries in the 1980s and 1990s, and international reaction to the deterioration of these states

    Understands influences on population growth, and efforts to control such growth in modern society (e.g., how statistics from specific, diverse nations illustrate the relationship between scientific, medical, and technological advancements and population growth; China's population growth from the 1700s to 1990, why the population growth increased dramatically, and the effects of the "one-child" policy of the 1990s; issues and objections raised at the 1994 Cairo Conference on World Population and the difficulty of arriving at a consensus document on population growth)

    Understands the effectiveness of United Nations programs (e.g., improvements in health and welfare, whether UN programs have been cost-effective, whether programs fulfilled the purpose for which they were created, reasons for economic and arms embargoes sponsored by U.N. resolutions and the political and economic consequences for the sanctioned countries)

    Understands common arguments of opposition groups in various countries around the world, common solutions they offer, and the position of these ideas with regard to Western economic and strategic interests

    Understands gender roles across the globe (e.g., conflicts in the perception of gender roles in various religions, especially the role of women; how the legal status of women varies around the world in Muslim societies, and how the status of women from different classes has changed in the past century)

    Understands how global political change has altered the world economy (e.g., what participation in the world economy can mean for different countries; the relationship between demands for democratic reform and the trend toward privatization and economic liberalization in developing economies and former communist states, and how multilateral aid organizations and multinational corporations have supported or challenged these trends)

    Understands how specific countries have implemented social and cultural changes (e.g., the different manifestations of China's contingency quest for a "new culture" throughout the 20th century, and what the Cultural Revolution meant for Chinese people in the late 1960s; models for family life, the economy, and social and political institutions suggested by modern Muslim intellectuals)

    Standard: 10

    Understands the nature and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics

    Level I: Primary (Grades K-2)

    Knows the basic components of culture (e.g., language, social organization, beliefs and customs, forms of shelter, economic activities, education systems)

    Level II: Upper Elementary (Grades 3-5)

    Knows the similarities and differences in characteristics of culture in different regions (e.g., in terms of environment and resources, technology, food, shelter, social organization, beliefs and customs, schooling, what girls and boys are allowed to do)

    Understands how different people living in the same region maintain different ways of life (e.g., the cultural differences between Native Americans and Europeans living along the eastern seaboard in the 17th century; differences among Sikhs, Hindus, and Muslims living in India today)

    Understands how cultures differ in their use of similar environments and resources (e.g., comparing how people live in Phoenix, Arizona with how people live in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)

    Understands cultural change (in terms of, e.g., the role of women in society, the role of children in society, clothing styles, modes of transportation, food preferences, types of housing, attitudes toward the environment and resources)

    Level III: Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 6-8)

    Knows ways in which communities reflect the cultural background of their inhabitants (e.g., distinctive building styles, billboards in Spanish, foreign-language advertisements in newspapers)

    Level IV: High School (Grades 9-12)

    Knows how cultures influence the characteristics of regions (e.g., level of technological achievement, cultural traditions, social institutions)

    Knows the role culture plays in incidents of cooperation and conflict in the present-day world (e.g., conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1960s, Central Europe in the 1980s and 1990s, states within the former Soviet Union in the 1990s; cooperation such as the religious and linguistic ties between Spain and parts of Latin America; ethnic ties among the Kurds living in Iran, Iraq, and Turkey)

    Understands how communication and transportation technologies contribute to cultural convergence or divergence (e.g., convergence created by electronic media, computers, and jet aircraft; divergence created by technologies used to reinforce nationalistic or ethnic elitism or cultural separateness and independence)


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