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Egypt - National Education Standards


World History

Understands and knows how to analyze chronological relationships and patterns

- Primary (Grades K-2)

Knows how to identify the beginning, middle, and end of historical stories, myths, and narratives

Knows how to develop picture time lines of their own lives or their family's history

Distinguishes among broad categories of historical time (e.g., long, long ago; long ago; yesterday; today; tomorrow)

- Upper Elementary (Grades 3-5)

Knows how to identify patterns of change and continuity in the history of the community, state, and nation, and in the lives of people of various cultures from times long ago until today

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 6-8)

Knows how to calculate calendar time B.C. (before Christ) or B.C.E. (before the Common Era), and A.D. (Anno Domini) or C.E. (in the Common Era), determining the onset, duration, and ending dates of historical events or developments

- High School (Grades 9-12)

Understands historical continuity and change related to a particular development or theme

Understands the historical perspective

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

Understands that specific individuals had a great impact on history

Understands that specific ideas had an impact on history

Understands that "chance events" had an impact on history

Understands that specific decisions and events had an impact on history

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands that specific individuals and the values those individuals held had an impact on history

Analyzes the influence specific ideas and beliefs had on a period of history

Analyzes the effect that specific "chance events" had on history

Analyzes the effects specific decisions had on history

Understands that historical accounts are subject to change based on newly uncovered records and interpretations

- High School (Grades 9-12)

Analyzes the values held by specific people who influenced history and the role their values played in influencing history Analyzes the influences specific ideas and beliefs had on a period of history and specifies how events might have been different in the absence of those ideas and beliefs

Analyzes the effects that specific "chance events" had on history and specifies how things might have been different in the absence of those events

Analyzes the effects specific decisions had on history and studies how things might have been different in the absence of those decisions

Analyzes how specific historical events would be interpreted differently based on newly uncovered records and/or information

Understands how the past affects our private lives and society in general

Knows how to perceive past events with historical empathy

Knows how to evaluate the credibility and authenticity of historical sources

Evaluates the validity and credibility of different historical interpretations

Uses historical maps to understand the relationship between historical events and geography

II. Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Rule

Understands selected attributes and historical developments of societies in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe

- Primary (Grades K-2)

Understands the main ideas found in folktales, stories of great heroism, fables, legends, and myths from around the world that reflect the beliefs and ways of living of various cultures in times past

Knows the holidays and ceremonies of different societies (e.g., Christmas celebrations in Scandinavia, Germany, or England; Cinco de Mayo; the Chinese New Year; the Japanese tea ceremony; harvest and spring festivals)

Understands the daily life, history, and beliefs of a country as reflected in dance, music, or the other art forms (such as paintings, sculptures, and masks)

- Upper Elementary (Grades 3-4)

Understands how historians learn about the past if there are no written records

Knows significant historical achievements of various cultures of the world (e.g., the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Taj Mahal in India, pyramids in Egypt, temples in ancient Greece, bridges and aqueducts in ancient Rome)

Understands the major characteristics of civilization and the development of civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

Understands influences on the development of various civilizations in the 4th and 3rd millennia BCE (e.g., how the natural environment of the Tigris-Euphrates, Nile, and Indus Valleys shaped the early development of civilization; different characteristics of urban development in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley)

Understands the characteristics of writing forms in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley and how written records shaped political, legal, religious, and cultural life

Understands how economic, political, and environmental factors influenced the civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley (e.g., the impact of trade networks connecting various regions of Southwest Asia on Mesopotamian civilization; the importance of commercial, cultural, and political connections between Egypt and peoples of Nubia along the upper Nile; how geography and climate affected trade in the Nile Valley)

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands environmental and cultural factors that shaped the development of Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley (e.g., development of religious and ethical belief systems and how they legitimized political and social order; demands of the natural environment; how written records such as the Epic of Gilgamesh reflected and shaped the political, religious, and cultural life of Mesopotamia)

Understands the role of economics in shaping the development of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley (e.g., the economic and cultural significance of the trade routes between Egypt, India, and Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium, the importance of traded goods to each society)

- High School (Grades 9-12)

Understands influences on the social and economic framework of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley (e.g., the characteristics of government and military in Egypt and Mesopotamia and the ways in which central authorities commanded labor and taxes from peasant farmers; how architectural, artistic, technological, and scientific achievements of these civilizations affected the economics of daily life)

Understands how written codes and stories reflect social conditions in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley (e.g., how the code of Hammurabi illustrated the ethical values, social hierarchy and attitudes, and roles of women in Mesopotamia; how the biblical account of Genesis and the Enuma Elish from Babylon reflect contrasting beliefs)

Understands features of trading networks in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley (e.g., those geographical characteristics that encouraged Mesopotamia to engage in trade and those which made trade difficult, shifting political relationships between trading partners in the 1st and 2nd millennia BCE and sources of conflict between them, the breadth of the Indus trade network)

Understands how agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the 3rd and 2nd millennian BCE

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

Understands the role of technology in early agrarian societies (e.g., how the advent of the plow influenced new agrarian societies in Southwest Asia, the Mediterranean basin, and temperate Europe; how megalithic stone buildings, such as Stonehenge, indicate the emergence of complex agrarian societies in Europe; changes for humankind and civilization brought on by the bow and arrow and by pottery; what physical evidence indicated about the characteristics of the agrarian society of ancient Egypt and the life of the Pharaoh)

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands the significance of advancements in tool and weapon technology (e.g., the technology of bronze casting and why bronze weapons were superior to those made of stone; how the development of the plow, bow and arrow, and pottery affected early man and led to changes in gender roles)

- High School (Grades 9-12)

Understands influences on the cultural and economic conditions of Minoan and Egyptian civilizations (e.g., the nature and extent of cultural contact between Minoan and Egyptian civilizations, the extent of Minoan trade and its impact on the development of Minoan civilization)

Understands the political, social, and cultural consequences of population movements and militarization in Eurasia in the second millennium BCE

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands significant individuals and events in Egyptian civilization (e.g., the extent of Egyptian expansion during the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms, and some of the factors that made this expansion possible; major political and cultural achievements of Thutmose III, Ramses II, and Queen Hatshepsut in Egypt)

- High School (Grades 9-12)

Understands the emergence and militarization of new kingdoms (e.g., what visual and written sources suggest about the impact of chariot warfare on the battlefield; the boundaries of major states in Southwest Asia, Egypt, and the Eastern Mediterranean in the later part of the 2nd millennium BCE and why wars and diplomatic relations among these states may have represented the first era of "internationalism" in world history)

Understands major trends in Eurasia and Africa from 4000 to 1000 BCE

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands the emergence of civilizations in Southwest Asia, the Nile valley, India, China, and the Eastern Mediterranean and how they represented a decisive transformation in human history

- High School (Grades 9-12)

Understands connections between the cultural achievements of early civilizations and the development of political and economic institutions (e.g., state authority, aristocratic power, taxation systems, and institutions of coerced labor, including slavery)

Understands technological and cultural innovation and change from 1000 to 600 BCE

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

Understands elements of Judaism and how it compares to other religions (e.g., the differences between Jewish monotheism and the polytheism of Southwest Asia, the ethical teachings of Judaism illustrated in stories from the Hebrew Scriptures, the major events in the early history of Judaism through the Babylonian Captivity)

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands social development and religious beliefs of Jewish civilization (e.g., the course of development of the Jewish kingdoms and the Jews' maintenance of religious and cultural traditions despite destruction of these kingdoms, the significance of the Torah in Judaism)

- High School (Grades 9-12)

Understands events that led to the spread of Judaism (e.g., the significance of the Babylonian captivity for the subsequent history and survival of Judaism, the significance of the Jewish diaspora for the transmission of Judaism in the Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia)


Understands the causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

Understands the spread of Islam in Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean region (e.g., the life of Muhammad, his devotion to God, and the basic beliefs and values he preached; how Islam spread in Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean and evidence for its influence; the importance to Islam of the Hegira [Hirjah], the Ka'abah, the Qur'an, the Sunnah, the Hajj, the daily prayer [Salat], the poor due [Zakat] and Ramadan)

Understands the influence of Islamic ideas and practices on other cultures and social behavior (e.g., the origin and development of Islamic law; the influence of Islamic law and Muslim practice on family life, morals, marriage, inheritance, and slavery; the possible appeal of Islam to culturally diverse non-Muslims across Afro-Eurasia in the Abbasid era)

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands significant aspects of Islamic civilization

Understands how the Muslims spread Islamic beliefs and established their empire

- High School (Grades 9-12)

Understands challenges to Muslim civilization

Understands significant social and cultural changes in Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries (e.g., the changing position of women in the new Islam, how Muslim mosque architecture physically reflects the relationship between people, spiritual leaders, and God in Islam; the process through which Arabic became a common language in the early Islamic centuries; what branches of. scholarship developed out of the efforts of Muslim leaders and scholars to record the Qur'an and Hadith)

Understands major global trends from 300 to 1000 CE

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

Understands major changes in the religious map of Eurasia and Africa between 300 and 1000 CE (e.g., the success of Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam in making converts among peoples of differing ethnic and cultural traditions)

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands the factors that contributed to the weakening of empires in world history from 300 to 1000 CE

Understands the maturation of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange during a period of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

Understands the cultural characteristics of Islamic society (e.g., the importance of scientific, literary, and artistic contributions made by the Islamic civilization between the 11th and 13th centuries; how these contributions helped communication between different Islamic peoples; the diverse, multiethnic character of the Islamic state)

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands the expansion of Islam and daily life in Islamic regions (e.g., how Turkic migration from Turkestan into Southwest Asia and India helped Islam expand and forced the retreat of Byzantium and Greek Christian civilization, what life in Egypt was like for Jewish and Christian communities, what student life was like in Islamic regions)

Understands elements of trade in different regions (e.g., the importance of Cairo and other major cities as centers of international trade and culture; how the spread of Islam was connected to trade in Central Asia, East Africa, West Africa, the coasts of India, and Southeast Asia; the importance to individual societies of goods traded between Asia, Africa, and Europe; the consequences placed on maritime trade by the seasonal monsoon winds in the Indian Ocean; features and functions of caravansaries and khans in Central Asian and Middle Eastern cities; which ships were most successfully used for trade in the Indian Ocean and why)

- High School (Grades 9-12)

Understands how different religious movements influenced various cultures between the 11th and 13th centuries (e.g., the origins and growth of the North African Islamic reform movements; the impact of Christian campaigns of the Crusades on the societies and Muslim populations of Cairo, Damascus, and Sicily)

Understands major global trends from 1750 to 1914

II: Elementary (Grades 5-6)

Understands major shifts in world population and urbanization in this era and how factors such as industrialization, migration, changing diets, and scientific and medical advances affected worldwide demographic trends (e.g., the changes large cities around the world went through during this period, such as Guangzhou [Canton], Cairo, Tokyo, Buenos Aires, Bombay, San Francisco, and London)

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands where Christianity and Islam grew in this era, and understands the causes of 19th-century reform movements or renewal in Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism

- High School (Grades 9-12)

Understands the process of educational reform in various Muslim regions during the 19th century (e.g., the new institutions that were established, the effect of this reform on women, those areas that wholly embraced Western values, and those that rejected them)


Understands the causes and global consequences of World War I

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

Understands the origins and significant features of World War I (e.g., the precipitating causes of the war; the factors that led to military stalemate in some areas; which countries joined each of the two alliances - the Allied Powers and the Central Powers - and the advantages and disadvantages for the formation of alliances; major areas of combat in Europe and Southwest Asia)

Understands the immediate and long-term consequences of World War I (e.g., the principal theaters of conflict in World War I in Europe, Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia, and the South Pacific; major turning points in the war; the short-term demographic, social, economic, and environmental consequences of the war's violence and destruction; the hardships of trench warfare)

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands events that contributed to the outbreak of World War I (e.g., diverse long-range causes of World War I, such as political and economic rivalries, ethnic and ideological conflicts, militarism, imperialism, and nationalism; how nationalism threatened the balance of power among the Great Powers in Europe, and why it was considered one of the causes of World War I)

Understands how different countries were aligned during World War I (e.g., the systems of alliances through which Europe organized itself into World War I, the role militarism played in these alliances, and the reasons for the war's expansion beyond European boundaries to become a world war; immediate causes for the entry of different nations into World War I)

- High School (Grades 9-12)

Understands arguments and theories regarding the causes of World War I (e.g., the role of social and class conflict leading to World War I; how primary and secondary sources illustrate the arguments presented by leaders on the eve of the Great War; why and how political leaders in European nations felt aggressive foreign policy, and the advocation of war, would help subdue domestic discontent and disorder; the arguments for and against war used by diverse political groups and figures in European countries)

Understands the extent to which different sources supported the war effort (e.g., how nationalism and propaganda helped mobilize civilian populations to support "total war;" ways in which colonial peoples contributed to the war effort of the Allies and the Central Powers by providing military forces and supplies, and what this effort might have meant to colonial subjects; the effectiveness of propaganda to gain support from neutral nations; how and why original support and enthusiasm to support the war deteriorated)

Understands the strategies of the Allied and Central Powers at the beginning of the war, when these strategies changed.

Understands the human cost and social impact of World War I (e.g., what sources, such as letters and books, illustrate about the mental and physical costs of the war to soldiers around the world; how the casualty figures for World War I compare to other wars, and reasons for the high casualty rate; the changes in women's roles during the Great War)

Understands the search for peace and stability throughout the world in the 1920s and 1930s

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

Understands treaties and other efforts to achieve peace and recovery from World War I (e.g., the conflicting aims and aspirations of the conferees at Versailles, and how the major powers responded to the terms of the settlement; why and how the League of Nations was founded, and its initial goals and limitations; the nations that were and were not invited to participate in the League of Nations; changes made to political boundaries after the peace treaties ending World War I, and which countries were winners or losers)

Understands how the settlements of World War I influenced the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Latin America (e.g., the mandate system created by the League of Nations and how it changed European rule in the Middle East and Africa, how World War I settlements contributed to the rise of both Pan-Arabism and nationalist struggles for the independence in the Middle East, how the readjustment of national borders in Africa after World War I affected people in East and West Africa)

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands the immediate and long-term political and social effects of World War I (e.g., the objectives and achievements of the women's movements in the context of World War I and its aftermath, the causes and effects of the U.S. isolationist policies on world politics and international relations in the 1920s, the agreements on reparation payments made at the Conference of Versailles and how these agreements corresponded to Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points)

- High School (Grades 9-12)

Understands how the collapse of the German, Hapsburg, and Ottoman Empires and the creation of new states affected international relations in Europe and the Middle East

Understands post-World War I shifts in geographic and political borders in Europe and the Middle East (e.g., how the postwar borders in Southern Europe and the Middle East were created, including influence of local opinion, prewar "spheres of influence," long-and short-term interests


Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world

- Elementary (Grades 5-6)

Understands the impact of increasing economic interdependence in different regions of the world

Understands efforts to improve political and social conditions around the world

Understands how feminist movements and social conditions have affected the lives of women around the world, and the extent of women's progress toward social equality, economic opportunity, and political rights in various countries

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 7-8)

Understands the definition of "fundamentalism," and the political objectives of militant religious movements in various countries of the world, as well as the social and economic factors that contribute to the growth of these movements

- High School (Grades 9-12)

Understands rates of economic development and the emergence of different economic systems around the globe

Understands the role of political ideology, religion, and ethnicity in shaping modern governments (e.g., the strengths of democratic institutions and civic culture in different countries and challenges to civil society in democratic states; how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America; the implications of ethnic, religious, and border conflicts on state-building in the newly independent republics of Africa; significant differences among nationalist movements in Eastern Europe that have developed in the 20th century, how resulting conflicts have been resolved, and the outcomes of these conflicts)

Understands the role of ethnicity, cultural identity, and religious beliefs in shaping economic and political conflicts across the globe (e.g., why terrorist movements have proliferated and the extent of their impact on politics and society in various countries; the tensions and contradictions between globalizing trends of the world economy and assertions of traditional cultural identity and distinctiveness, including the challenges to the role of religion in contemporary society; the meaning of jihad and other Islamic beliefs that are relevant to military activity, how these compare to the Geneva Accords, and how such laws and principles apply to terrorist acts)

Understands gender roles across the globe (e.g., conflicts in the perception of gender roles in various religions, especially the role of women; how the legal status of women varies around the world in Muslim societies, and how the status of women from different classes has changed in the past century)

Knows the location of places, geographic features, and patterns of the environment

- Middle School/Jr. High (Grades 6-8)

Knows the location of physical and human features on maps and globes (e.g., culture hearths such as Mesopotamia, Huang Ho, the Yucatan Peninsula, the Nile Valley; major ocean currents; wind patterns; land forms; climate regions)


Understands the patterns and processes of migration and diffusion (spread of language, religion, and customs from one culture to another; spread of a contagious disease through a population; global migration patterns of plants and animals) (Geography Standard 3)


Understands how politics enables people with differing ideas to reach binding agreements (e.g., presenting information and evidence, stating arguments, negotiating, compromising, voting) (Civics Standard 1)

Understands competing ideas about the purposes government should serve (e.g., whether government should protect individual rights, promote the common good, provide economic security, mold the character of citizens, promote a particular religion) (Civics Standard 1)

Understands how the world is organized politically into nation-states, how nation-states interact with one another, and issues surrounding U.S. foreign policy (Civics Standard 22)

Knows that the world is divided into many different nations with each one having its own government, and knows that a nation consists of its territory, people, laws, and government. (Civics Standard 22)

Knows the major ways nations interact with each other such as trade, diplomacy, cultural contacts, treaties or agreements, and use of military force. (Civics Standard 22)

Understands why it is important for nations to try to resolve problems peacefully (e.g., people's standard of living will improve due to increased trade, people's health will improve due to the exchange of medical and scientific knowledge). (Civics Standard 22)

Knows the most important means used by nation-states to interact with one another (e.g., trade, diplomacy, treaties and agreements, humanitarian aid, economic incentives and sanctions, military force and the threat of force) (Civics Standard 22)

Knows reasons for the breakdown of order among nation-states (e.g., conflicts about national interests, ethnicity, and religion; competition for resources and territory; absence of effective means to enforce international law), and understands the consequences of the breakdown of order among nation-states. (Civics Standard 22)

Knows the purposes and functions of major governmental international organizations (e.g., UN, NATO, OAS, World Court) and nongovernmental international organizations (e.g., International Red Cross, World Council of Churches, Amnesty International). (Civics Standard 22)


Visual Arts - Understands the visual arts in relation to history and cultures

Music - Understands the relationship between music and history and culture

Dance - Understands dance in various cultures and historical periods

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